Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Basis of Presentation
|9 Months Ended|
Jul. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Basis of Presentation||
2. SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND BASIS OF PRESENTATION
Basis of Presentation - Unaudited Interim Financial Information
The accompanying unaudited interim condensed financial statements and related notes have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information, and in accordance with the rules and regulations of the SEC with respect to Form 10-Q and Rule 10-01 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by U.S. GAAP for complete financial statements. The unaudited interim condensed financial statements furnished reflect all adjustments (consisting of normal recurring accruals) which are, in the opinion of management, necessary to represent a fair statement of the results for the interim periods presented. Interim results are not necessarily indicative of the results for the full year. These unaudited interim condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements of the Company for the year ended October 31, 2016 and notes thereto contained in the Company’s annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended October 31, 2016, as filed with the SEC on January 9, 2017.
The information presented in the accompanying unaudited condensed balance sheet as of October 31, 2016 has been derived from the Company’s October 31, 2016 audited financial statements.
The preparation of financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP involves the use of estimates and assumptions that affect the recorded amounts of assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results may differ substantially from these estimates. Significant estimates include the fair value and recoverability of the carrying value of intangible assets (patents and licenses), the fair value of stock options, the fair value of embedded conversion features, warrants and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an on-going basis, the Company evaluates its estimates, based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results may differ from estimates.
Certain amounts in the prior period financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the presentation of the current period financial statements. These reclassifications had no effect on the previously reported net loss.
The Company evaluates whether an arrangement is a collaborative arrangement under the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 808, Collaborative Arrangements, at its inception based on the facts and circumstances specific to the arrangement. The Company also reevaluates whether an arrangement qualifies or continues to qualify as a collaborative arrangement whenever there is a change in either the roles of the participants or the participants’ exposure to significant risks and rewards dependent on the ultimate commercial success of the endeavor. For those collaborative arrangements where it is determined that the Company is the principal participant, costs incurred and revenue generated from third parties are recorded on a gross basis in the financial statements.
From time to time, the Company enters into collaborative arrangements for the research and development, manufacture and/or commercialization of products and product candidates. These collaborations generally provide for non-refundable, upfront license fees, research and development and commercial performance milestone payments, cost sharing, royalty payments and/or profit sharing. The Company’s collaboration agreements with third parties are performed on a ‘‘best efforts’’ basis with no guarantee of either technological or commercial success.
The Company is expected to derive the majority of its revenue from patent licensing and research and development services associated with patent licensing. In general, these revenue arrangements provide for the payment of contractually determined fees in consideration for the grant of certain intellectual property rights for patented technologies owned or controlled by the Company. The intellectual property rights granted may be perpetual in nature, or upon the final milestones being met, or can be granted for a defined, relatively short period of time, with the licensee possessing the right to renew the agreement at the end of each contractual term for an additional minimum upfront payment. The Company recognizes licensing fees when there is persuasive evidence of a licensing arrangement, fees are fixed or determinable, delivery has occurred and collectability is reasonably assured.
Revenue associated with nonrefundable upfront license fees under arrangements where the license fees and research and development activities cannot be accounted for as separate units of accounting is deferred and recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the expected period of performance.
Revenues from the achievement of research and development milestones, if deemed substantive, are recognized as revenue when the milestones are achieved and the milestone payments are due and collectible. If not deemed substantive, the Company recognizes such milestones as revenue on a straight-line basis over the remaining expected performance period under the arrangement. All such recognized revenues are included in collaborative licensing and development revenue in the Company’s statements of operations.
Milestones are considered substantive if all of the following conditions are met: (1) the milestone is nonrefundable; (2) achievement of the milestone was not reasonably assured at the inception of the arrangement; (3) substantive effort is involved to achieve the milestone; and (4) the amount of the milestone appears reasonable in relation to the effort expended, and the other milestones in the arrangement and the related risk associated with the achievement of the milestone and any ongoing research and development or other services are priced at fair value.
If product development is successful, the Company will recognize revenue from royalties based on licensees’ sales of its products or products using its technologies. Royalties are recognized as earned in accordance with the contract terms when royalties from licensees can be reasonably estimated and collectability is reasonably assured. If royalties cannot be reasonably estimated or collectability of a royalty amount is not reasonably assured, royalties are recognized as revenue when the cash is received.
Deferred revenue represents the portion of payments received for which the earnings process has not been completed. Deferred revenue expected to be recognized within the next 12 months is classified as a current liability.
An allowance for doubtful accounts is established based on the Company’s best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses in the Company’s existing license fee receivables, using historical experience. The Company reviews its allowance for doubtful accounts periodically. Past due accounts are reviewed individually for collectability. Account balances are charged off against the allowance after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. To date, this is yet to occur.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments with an original maturity of three months or less when purchased to be cash equivalents. As of July 31, 2017 and October 31, 2016, the Company had approximately $8.3 million and $106.7 million, respectively, in cash equivalents.
Concentration of Credit Risk
The Company maintains its cash in bank deposit accounts (checking) that at times exceed federally insured limits. Approximately $13.7 million is subject to credit risk at July 31, 2017. However, these cash balances are maintained at creditworthy financial institutions. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risk.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts of financial instruments, including cash, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximated fair value as of the balance sheet date presented, because of the relatively short maturity dates on these instruments. The carrying amounts of the financing arrangements issued approximate fair value as of the balance sheet date presented, because interest rates on these instruments approximate market interest rates after consideration of stated interest rates, anti-dilution protection and associated warrants.
Net Loss per Share
Basic net income or loss per common share is computed by dividing net income or loss available to common shareholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share give effect to dilutive options, warrants, convertible debt and other potential Common Stock outstanding during the period. In the case of a net loss the impact of the potential Common Stock resulting from warrants, outstanding stock options and convertible debt are not included in the computation of diluted loss per share, as the effect would be anti-dilutive. In the case of net income, the impact of the potential Common Stock resulting from these instruments that have intrinsic value are included in the diluted earnings per share. The table sets forth the number of potential shares of Common Stock that have been excluded from diluted net loss per share.
Stock Based Compensation
The Company has an equity plan which allows for the granting of stock options to its employees, directors and consultants for a fixed number of shares with an exercise price equal to the fair value of the shares at date of grant. The Company measures the cost of services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the fair value of the award. For employees and directors, the fair value of the award is measured on the grant date and for non-employees, the fair value of the award is generally measured based on contractual terms. The fair value amount is then recognized over the requisite service period, usually the vesting period, in both research and development expenses and general and administrative expenses on the statement of operations, depending on the nature of the services provided by the employees or consultants.
The process of estimating the fair value of stock-based compensation awards and recognizing stock-based compensation cost over their requisite service period involves significant assumptions and judgments. The Company estimates the fair value of stock option awards on the date of grant using the Black Scholes Model (“BSM”) for the remaining awards, which requires that the Company makes certain assumptions regarding: (i) the expected volatility in the market price of its Common Stock; (ii) dividend yield; (iii) risk-free interest rates; and (iv) the period of time employees are expected to hold the award prior to exercise (referred to as the expected holding period). As a result, if the Company revises its assumptions and estimates, stock-based compensation expense could change materially for future grants.
The Company accounts for stock-based compensation using fair value recognition and records stock-based compensation as a charge to earnings net of forfeited awards. As such, the Company recognizes stock-based compensation cost only for those stock-based awards that vest over their requisite service period, based on the vesting provisions of the individual grants.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, as part of its ongoing efforts to assist in the convergence of GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which is a new standard related to revenue recognition. Under the new standard, recognition of revenue occurs when a customer obtains control of promised services or goods in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. In addition, the standard requires disclosure of the nature, amount, timing, and uncertainty of revenue and cash flows arising from customer contracts. The standard must be adopted using either a full retrospective approach for all periods presented in the period of adoption or a modified retrospective approach. In July 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-14, Revenue from Contracts with Customers - Deferral of the Effective Date, which defers the implementation of this new standard to be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted effective January 1, 2017. In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-08, Principal versus Agent Considerations, which clarifies the implementation guidance on principal versus agent considerations in the new revenue recognition standard pursuant to ASU 2014-09. In April 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-10, Identifying Performance Obligations and Licensing, in May 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-12, Narrow-Scope Improvements and Practical Expedients, and in December 2016 the FASB issued ASU 2016-20, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Topic 606, Revenue from Contracts with Customers, which amend certain aspects of the new revenue recognition standard pursuant to ASU 2014-09. We are currently evaluating which transition approach we will utilize and the impact of adopting this accounting standard on the Company’s financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”). The standard amends the existing accounting standards for lease accounting, including requiring lessees to recognize most leases on their balance sheets and making targeted changes to lessor accounting. ASU 2016-02 will be effective beginning in the first quarter of 2019. Early adoption of ASU 2016-02 is permitted. The new leases standard requires a modified retrospective transition approach for all leases existing at, or entered into after, the date of initial application, with an option to use certain transition relief. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2016-02 on the Company’s financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, “Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments.” The standard significantly changes how entities will measure credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments that aren’t measured at fair value through net income. The standard will replace today’s “incurred loss” approach with an “expected loss” model for instruments measured at amortized cost. For available-for-sale debt securities, entities will be required to record allowances rather than reduce the carrying amount, as they do today under the other-than-temporary impairment model. It also simplifies the accounting model for purchased credit-impaired debt securities and loans. This ASU is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods therein. Early adoption is permitted for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods therein. This ASU is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU No. 2017-01, “Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business.” The amendments in this Update clarify the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions (or disposals) of businesses. The amendments in this Update provide a screen to determine when a set is not a business. If the screen is not met, it (1) requires that to be considered a business, a set must include, at a minimum, an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create output and (2) removes the evaluation of whether a market participant could replace the missing elements. This Update is the final version of Proposed ASU 2015-330 Business Combinations (Topic 805) – Clarifying The Definition of a Business, which has been deleted. The amendments in this Update are effective for all entities for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. This ASU is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, “Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting” to provide clarity and reduce both (1) diversity in practice and (2) cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation, to a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. The amendments in this Update provide guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting in Topic 718. This Update is the final version of Proposed ASU 2016-360—Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718)—Scope of Modification Accounting, which has been deleted. The amendments in this Update are effective for all entities for annual periods, and interim periods within those annual periods, beginning after December 15, 2017. Early adoption is permitted. This ASU is not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
Management does not believe that any other recently issued, but not yet effective accounting pronouncements, if adopted, would have a material impact on the accompanying condensed financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the basis of presentation and significant accounting policies concepts. Basis of presentation describes the underlying basis used to prepare the financial statements (for example, US Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Other Comprehensive Basis of Accounting, IFRS). Accounting policies describe all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef