Nature of Operations
|9 Months Ended|
Jul. 31, 2017
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Nature of Operations||
1. NATURE OF OPERATIONS
Advaxis, Inc. (“Advaxis” or the “Company”) is a late-stage biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development and commercialization of proprietary Lm-based antigen delivery products. These immunotherapies are based on a platform technology that utilizes live attenuated Listeria monocytogenes (“Lm” or “Lm TechnologyTM”) bioengineered to secrete antigen/adjuvant fusion proteins. These Lm-based strains are believed to be a significant advancement in immunotherapy as they integrate multiple functions into a single immunotherapy as they access and direct antigen presenting cells to stimulate anti-tumor T-cell immunity, stimulate and activate the immune system with the equivalent of multiple adjuvants, and simultaneously reduce tumor protection in the tumor microenvironment to enable the T-cells to eliminate tumors.
Advaxis has developed a strong foothold in the development of immunotherapies, including both axalimogene filolisbac and ADXS-DUAL (ADXS-602) for HPV-related cancers. Axalimogene filolisbac is an Lm–based antigen delivery product directed against the Human Papilloma Virus (“HPV”) and designed to target cells expressing the HPV. ADXS-DUAL, the Company’s second immunotherapy targeting HPV-associated cancers, is an Lm-based immunotherapy that secretes a fusion protein containing E7 protein antigens from both major families of HPV.
The Company completed a randomized Phase 2 study in 110 patients with recurrent metastatic cervical cancer that was shown to have a manageable safety profile, apparent improved survival and objective tumor responses. In addition, the Gynecologic Oncology Group (“GOG”) Foundation, Inc., now part of NRG Oncology, conducted a cooperative group / Company sponsored Phase 2 open-label clinical study of axalimogene filolisbac in patients with persistent or recurrent metastatic cervical cancer with documented disease progression. The study, known as GOG-0265, has successfully completed the first and second stages in its Simon 2-stage design. Upon early closure of this study, the results from both stages totaling 50 patients dosed resulted in a 12-month survival rate of 38.0% with a manageable safety profile. The Company has initiated a registrational Phase 3 clinical trial for the adjuvant treatment of women with high-risk locally advanced cervical cancer and, pending FDA feedback, is planning to initiate a global, randomized, registrational quality clinical trial in 1H 2018 in the metastatic cervical cancer setting with ADXS-DUAL in combination with Bristol-Myers Squibb’s (“BMS”) PD-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, OPDIVO® (nivolumab). The Company also plans to pursue registrational opportunities in Europe in 2017 for the metastatic cervical cancer setting as a monotherapy with axalimogene filolisbac.
Axalimogene filolisbac has received United States Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) orphan drug designation for three HPV-associated cancers: cervical, head and neck, and anal cancer, and has received European Medicines Agency (“EMA”) orphan drug designation for anal cancer. Axalimogene filolisbac has been designated by the FDA as a Fast Track product for adjuvant therapy for high-risk locally advanced cervical cancer patients. It has also been classified as an advanced-therapy medicinal product (“ATMP”) for the treatment of cervical cancer by the European Medicines Agency’s Committee for Advanced Therapies (“CAT”). Axalimogene filolisbac is subject to an agreement with the FDA, under the Special Protocol Assessment (“SPA”) process, for the Phase 3 AIM2CERV trial in patients with high-risk, locally advanced cervical cancer. It is also being evaluated in Company-sponsored trials executed under an Investigational New Drug (“IND”) which include the following: (i) a Phase 1/2 clinical trial alone and in combination with MedImmune, LLC’s (“MedImmune”) investigational anti-PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitor, durvalumab (MEDI4736), in patients with previously treated metastatic cervical cancer or patients with HPV-associated head and neck cancer; and (ii) a single arm Phase 2 monotherapy study in patients with metastatic anal cancer. In addition to the Company-sponsored trials, axalimogene filolisbac is also being evaluated in two investigator-initiated clinical trials as follows: neoadjuvant treatment of HPV-positive head and neck cancer (Mount Sinai & Baylor College of Medicine), and locally advanced high risk anal cancer (Brown University).
ADXS-PSA (ADXS31-142) is the Company’s Lm–based product candidate designed to target the Prostate Specific Antigen (“PSA”) associated with prostate cancer which is being evaluated in a Phase 1/2 clinical trial alone and in combination with KEYTRUDA® (pembrolizumab), Merck & Co.’s (“Merck”) humanized monoclonal antibody against PD-1, in patients with previously treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
ADXS-HER2 (ADXS31-164) is the Company’s Lm-based product candidate designed for the treatment of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (“HER2”) expressing cancers, including human and canine osteosarcoma. ADXS-HER2 was evaluated in a Phase 1b clinical trial in patients with metastatic HER2 expressing solid tumors. The Company has evaluated the data, and based on the Company’s priorities, has determined not to pursue further clinical study of ADXS-HER2 at this time but remains open to investigator-initiated research or licensing proposals. Clinical research with ADXS-HER2 in canine osteosarcoma is being developed by the Company’s pet therapeutic partner, Aratana Therapeutics Inc. (“Aratana”), who holds exclusive rights to develop and commercialize ADXS-HER2 and three other Lm -LLO immunotherapies for pet health applications. Aratana has announced that a product license application for use of ADXS-HER2 in the treatment of canine osteosarcoma has been filed with the United States Department of Agriculture (“USDA”). Aratana received communication from the USDA in March 2015 stating that the previously submitted efficacy data for product licensure for AT-014 (ADXS-HER2), the cancer immunotherapy for canine osteosarcoma, was accepted and that it provides a reasonable expectation of efficacy that supports conditional licensure. While additional steps need to be completed, including in the areas of manufacturing and safety, Aratana anticipates that AT-014 could receive conditional licensure from the USDA in 2017.
ADXS-NEO is the Company’s individual Lm-based antigen delivery product combined with a fusion protein based on information captured by comparing a patient’s own DNA with the DNA from that patient’s tumor. The FDA has cleared the Company’s IND application for clinical investigation of a new precision immunotherapy for the treatment of cancers. The Company plans to initiate a Phase 1 study in first half of 2018.
The Company has focused its development efforts on establishing a drug development pipeline that incorporates this technology into therapeutic cancer immunotherapies, with clinical trials currently targeting HPV-associated cancers (cervical cancer, head and neck cancer, and anal cancer), prostate cancer, and canine osteosarcoma. Although no immunotherapies have been commercialized to date, the Company continues to invest in research and development to advance the technology and make it available to patients with many different types of cancer. Pipeline development and the further exploration of the technology for advancement entails risk and expense. The Company anticipates that its ongoing operational costs will increase significantly as it continues conducting and expanding its clinical development programs. In addition to its existing single antigen vectors that target one tumor associated antigen, the Company is actively engaged in the development of new constructs that will address multiple targets that are common to tumor types, as well as mutation-associated epitopes that are specific to an individual patient’s tumor. The Company is also leveraging its Lm Technology™ to target common (public or shared) mutations (hotspots) in tumor driver genes, which it refers to as ADXS-HOT. Lastly, the Company completed construction for its pilot plant at the state-of-the-art manufacturing facility in Princeton, NJ, to produce supplies for its neoepitope and other development programs.
Liquidity and Financial Condition
The Company’s products are being developed and have not generated significant revenues. As of July 31 2017, the Company had approximately $89.4 million in cash, cash equivalents and investments on its balance sheet. The Company believes its current cash position is sufficient to fund its business plan into approximately fiscal 2019. The estimate is based on assumptions that may prove to be wrong, and the Company could use available capital resources sooner than currently expected. Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with the development and commercialization of its product candidates, the Company is unable to estimate the amount of increased capital outlays and operating expenses associated with completing the development of its current product candidates.
The Company recognizes it may need to raise additional capital in order to continue to execute its business plan. There is no assurance that additional financing will be available when needed or that management will be able to obtain financing on terms acceptable to the Company or whether the Company will become profitable and generate positive operating cash flow. If the Company is unable to raise sufficient additional funds, it will have to scale back its business plan.
The entire disclosure for the nature of an entity's business, major products or services, principal markets including location, and the relative importance of its operations in each business and the basis for the determination, including but not limited to, assets, revenues, or earnings. For an entity that has not commenced principal operations, disclosures about the risks and uncertainties related to the activities in which the entity is currently engaged and an understanding of what those activities are being directed toward.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef